A robust impact assessment framework entails careful reflection and planning of monitoring and evaluation processes which pertain to the design of nature-based solutions. By definition, nature-based solutions are multifunctional. NBS assessment is cardinal to evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of specific interventions against strategic city goals. The ultimate goal is to gather long-term solid evidence about nature-based solutions performance in particular urban contexts and for different social groups. In turn, this evidence can support smart policy decisions and adaptive co-management aspects of the NBS stewardship once installed, as well as enhance sustainability, wellbeing, and resilience in cities.

Types of indicators

Classification and examples

Outcome indicators

  • Health and Wellbeing (e.g. General Wellbeing and Happiness)

  • Social Cohesion and Justice (e.g. Citizen Empowerment)

  • Environmental (e.g. Air Temperature Reduction

  • Economic (e.g. New Business Creation)

Primary indicators

  • Type, frequency and duration of interaction with NBS
  • Perceived quality of NBS

Participatory planning and governance indicators

  • Co-production (e.g. openness or inclusivity)

  • Governance capacities (e.g. skills or resources)

  • Actionable knowledge (e.g. policy learning)

  • Organizational development (e.g. leadership skills)

The Glasgow Connecting Nature Dashboard (offers a good example of visually unifying and integrating different results sources.



This guidebook presents the Connecting Nature process of developing robust monitoring and evaluation plans for nature-based solutions. Robust evaluation supports planners and decision-makers in building solid evidence-based understanding as to the impact of nature-based solutions and enhancing cost-effective and socially beneficial policy, building a foundation for scaled up delivery.

The Connecting Nature impact assessment framework has been co-produced by academic partners and representatives of three European cities in Connecting Nature, which are frontrunners in implementation of nature-based solutions. The framework aims at contributing to the development of a European standard for nature-based solutions monitoring and evaluation.

Download the Impact Assessment guidebook 

Download the Bosnian version of the Impact Assessment guidebook


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